All dating in rwanda
A range of high volcanoes forms Rwanda's northwest border.
The mountainous topography continues in the North Kivu region of Congo, where almost half of the population identifies as Rwandan.
Land pressures throughout the densely populated region encouraged increasing political centralization, particularly among cattle-raising people, who feared the loss of pasture land to encroaching cultivation.
From the continental divide, the land drops sharply to the shores of Lake Kivu, which forms most of Rwanda's border with Congo.
The cattle vassalage system was abolished in the 1950s and Hutu politicians deposed the king in 1961.
After independence in 1962, the all-Hutu government sought to portray Rwanda as a Hutu country, emphasizing agrarian cultural symbols.
Christianity became an important source of national symbols, with almost all national leaders openly identifying as Christians, the large majority as Catholic.
Since the Tutsi retook power in 1994, historic symbols such as cattle have been revived, and a strong political faction has called for the reinstallation of the monarchy as a means of reunifying the country's ethnic groups. Rwanda traces its origins to one of the many small kingdoms that emerged in the Great Lakes region of Central Africa beginning five hundred years ago.
Each group had distinct roles in public rituals, and each group had a distinctive mode of dress.