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This article is about the ancient (pre-539 BC) empires.
For the region called Babylonia by Jewish sources in the later, Talmudic period, see Talmudic Academies in Babylonia.
For other uses, see Babylonia (disambiguation).) was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
A small Amorite-ruled state emerged in 1894 BC, which contained the minor administrative town of Babylon.
Sin-Muballit was the first of these Amorite rulers to be regarded officially as a king of Babylon, and then on only one single clay tablet.His reign was concerned with establishing statehood amongst a sea of other minor city states and kingdoms in the region.However Sumuabum appears never to have bothered to give himself the title of King of Babylon, suggesting that Babylon itself was still only a minor town or city, and not worthy of kingship.Mesopotamia had already enjoyed a long history prior to the emergence of Babylon, with Sumerian civilisation emerging in the region c.3500 BC, and the Akkadian-speaking people appearing by the 30th century BC. 3500 BC until the rise of the Akkadian Empire in the 24th century BC, Mesopotamia had been dominated by largely Sumerian cities and city states, such as Ur, Lagash, Uruk, Kish, Isin, Larsa, Adab, Eridu, Gasur, Assur, Hamazi, Akshak, Arbela and Umma, although Semitic Akkadian names began to appear on the king lists of some of these states (such as Eshnunna and Assyria) between the 29th and 25th centuries BC.
Babylon was merely a religious and cultural centre at this point and neither an independent state nor a large city; like the rest of Mesopotamia, it was subject to the Akkadian Empire which united all the Akkadian and Sumerian speakers under one rule.